Basic Definitions


Term used to define the color of a pair of denim.


A term used to describe how dye rubs of fabrics to skin or other fabrics.


Rugged Cotton twill. The first such fabric come from Nimes France. The names comes from the french word “de Nimes” meaning, from Nimes. Dyed Yarn is woven with undyed filling yarns, either ring spun or open end yarns.


The industrial process of adding color to fiber, yarn, fabric, or garments.


A general term which covers treatment of a fabric to give the desired surface effect such as a flat, napped, mercerized, sanforized, etc. Some finishes can be applied to make a fabric crease resistant or waterproof.


A reference to the way a fabric feels. Hand include smooth, crisp, stiff, drapey, or soft. The various fabric  finish and wash processes used will affect  the resulting hand feel of a fabric


Blue jeans are by the application of indigo dye to the warp thread. Modern indigo is usually synthetic in origin. Historically, until about 1900, indigo was produced from the variety of plants, most commonly the tropical flowering plant Indigofera. Indigo dyes do not fully penetrate the fabric and the dye is apt to fade over time


Used interchangeably with the word denim. Jeans were worn by sailors of the Genoese Navy in Italy. The french referred to the indigo-dyed trousers as “bleu de Genes” (“blue of the Genoa”) which is the origin of the modern English word “jeans” .


A company that takes unwashed jeans and processes them. These processes can include all wash types, even garments dying. Wash development has become equally important to fabric development in the denim industry.

Raw Denim

Also called rigid or unwashed denim. Raw denim is not washed before it is sold to the customers. It is stiff and can be very dark.

Pumice Stones

Volcanic stones used for stone washing garments.


The percent differences from the original measurement a fabric retracts to after it maximum  stretch.


The percent past the original dimension that the fabric can stretch at its maximum stretch


Adding color to the denim during wash to slightly change the cast of the finished garment.


Commercially washing jeans is an important final step that causes the denim to fade and take on its unique look